Kigali Agreement: Simplified

Paris Agreement to mitigate climate change was followed by another major global agreement – Kigali Agreement. In this post, we explain the importance of Kigali agreement and it’s relevance to India.

What is Kigali Agreement?

  • In the 28th meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol, negotiators from 197 nations have signed a historic agreement to amend the Montreal Protocol in Kigali, a capital city of a tiny African country, Rwanda on 15th October 2016.
  • As per the agreement, these countries are expected to reduce the manufacture and use of Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) by roughly 80-85%  from their respective baselines, till 2045.
  • This phase down is expected to arrest the global average temperature rise up to 0.5C by 2100.
  • Kigali agreement is an amendment to Montreal Protocol.

 What is Montreal Protocol?

  • The Montreal Protocol is a most effective international environmental treaty to phase out the Ozone Depleting Substances (ODSs) from the atmosphere.
  • It came into force in 1989.
  • It has 197 member parties to the protocol and become a first international treaty with complete ratification.
  • It has undergone several amendments and Kigali amendment is the eighth amendment to this protocol.
  • It has successfully curbed the 98% production of chlorofluorocarbons and other ODSs and significantly contributed to the repair of the ozone hole.

What are Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)?

  • Hydrofluorocarbons are organic compounds containing hydrogen, Carbon, and fluorine.
  • They are commonly used as substitutes for Ozone depleting substances like Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and are used in refrigerators and air-conditioners.

HFCs: Will not cause ozone layer depletion, but will cause global warming!

  • Though HFCs are not as harmful as CFCs for ozone layer depletion, they have a thousand times more potential to cause global warming effect than commonly known greenhouse gases like carbon Dioxide, methane etc.

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