Paris Agreement to mitigate climate change was followed by another major global agreement – Kigali Agreement. In this post, we explain the importance of Kigali agreement and it’s relevance to India.
What is Kigali Agreement?
- In the 28th meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol, negotiators from 197 nations have signed a historic agreement to amend the Montreal Protocol in Kigali, a capital city of a tiny African country, Rwanda on 15th October 2016.
- As per the agreement, these countries are expected to reduce the manufacture and use of Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) by roughly 80-85% from their respective baselines, till 2045.
- This phase down is expected to arrest the global average temperature rise up to 0.5o C by 2100.
- Kigali agreement is an amendment to Montreal Protocol.
What is Montreal Protocol?
- The Montreal Protocol is a most effective international environmental treaty to phase out the Ozone Depleting Substances (ODSs) from the atmosphere.
- It came into force in 1989.
- It has 197 member parties to the protocol and become a first international treaty with complete ratification.
- It has undergone several amendments and Kigali amendment is the eighth amendment to this protocol.
- It has successfully curbed the 98% production of chlorofluorocarbons and other ODSs and significantly contributed to the repair of the ozone hole.
What are Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)?
- Hydrofluorocarbons are organic compounds containing hydrogen, Carbon, and fluorine.
- They are commonly used as substitutes for Ozone depleting substances like Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and are used in refrigerators and air-conditioners.
HFCs: Will not cause ozone layer depletion, but will cause global warming!
- Though HFCs are not as harmful as CFCs for ozone layer depletion, they have a thousand times more potential to cause global warming effect than commonly known greenhouse gases like carbon Dioxide, methane etc.